Discussion Questions 6 – Article Example
The Brown Decision and School Desegregation of the of the of the The Brown Decision and School Desegregation
Most of the States of the Union, from the 1880s to the 1960s, implemented racial segregation, via the Jim Crow laws. The areas, in which such segregation was practiced, ranged from education, nursing, public transportation and marriage to burial and mental hospitals (National Park Service 2014).
On 17 May 1954, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Brown v Board of Education that it was a violation of the US Constitution to establish separate public schools for black and white students. The Court stressed upon bringing about desegregation, as quickly as possible (Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, et al 1954).
Despite the urgency highlighted by the US Supreme Court decision, no specific time limit had been stipulated, with respect to desegregation. As such, the local school boards and federal district courts were made responsible for achieving this goal. In the subsequent years, the US Supreme Court diluted the protections against segregation provided by the courts, whilst enhancing freedom to school districts. This had, in several cases, resulted in resegregation (The Civil Rights Project-Harvard University 2002).
In a metropolitan areas, economic integration denotes the presence of realistic housing options for households with different income levels. Thus, economic segregation, to some extent, is not abnormal. However, the current economic segregation levels tend to be extreme, and are the outcome of public policies, such as fiscal inequalities in school districts and exclusionary zoning laws (Jargowsky n.d.).
It is not a simple task to implement desegregation rapidly, according to the norms raised by the decision in the Brown’s case. This is due to the wide economic disparities in society. However, racial isolation can be effectively reduced by implementing policies that eliminate racial imbalance between school districts. The creation of integrated schools poses a major problem, as students have to travel across districts. This form of desegregation policy has been annulled by the US Supreme Court. It is necessary to implement policies that recognize the massive scale of segregation that exists, at present (Barkhorn 2013).
Anderson and United States v Madison County School District, was a longstanding case of school desegregation. The proposal of the school district to construct five schools was opposed by the Section and a class of African American plaintiffs. The contention of the Section was that these new schools would not promote the desegregation of school districts (The United States Department of Justice n.d.).
It was also contended that this move would deprive black students of equal educational opportunities, in addition to imposing disproportionate transportation burdens upon these students. In May 1999, the district court concluded a seven day trial. The court approved of the construction plan of the school district (The United States Department of Justice n.d.). However, it directed the school district to address the issues raised by the Section.
Barkhorn, Eleanor. 2013. "Why Are American Schools Still Segregated?" The Atlantic. November 5. Accessed August 6, 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/11/why-are-american-schools-still-segregated/281126/.
Jargowsky, Paul. n.d. "City Vitals Series: Economic Integration ." CEOs for Cities. Accessed August 6, 2014. http://www.ceosforcities.org/pagefiles/EconomicIntegration.pdf.
National Park Service. 2014. Jim Crow Laws. July 10. Accessed August 6, 2014. http://www.nps.gov/malu/forteachers/jim_crow_laws.htm.
Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, et al. 1954. 34 US 483 (Supreme Court of the United States, May 17).
The Civil Rights Project-Harvard University. 2002. "Constitutional Requirements for Race-Conscious Policies in K-12 Education." September 23. Accessed August 6, 2014. http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/legal-developments/legal-memos/constitutional-requirements-for-race-conscious-policies-in-k-12-education/constitutional-requirments-race-conscious-k-12.pdf.
The United States Department of Justice. n.d. Case Summaries. Accessed August 6, 2014. http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/edu/documents/casesummary.php#anderson.