Central America & The Caribbean Geography Questions – Assignment Example

GEOGRAPHY OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN PART III – FILL-IN (23 points The numerically dominant racial group in Mexico is the mestizos. 2. PEMEX refers to PETROLEOS MEXICANOS (Mexican Oils, a public parastatal oil company)
3. Two men from Oaxaca became presidents of Mexico. In the mid-nineteenth century Benito Juarez, known as the “Man of Law” was elected, and was followed by Porfirio Diaz, whose stay in power was so long that it triggered the Revolution of Mexico in 1810.
4. The “NOCHE TRISTE” (“The night of sorrows”) refers to the night when Hernan Cortes (spanish conqueror of Mexico) lamented the defeat of his army in battle against the Aztecs (Indian culture).
5. In early colonial times the economy of Mexico was based on two metallic minerals, gold and silver. The processing of one of these minerals was policed by the Spanish monopoly of azogue (mercury), which was necessary for the production of the product yielded by this industry.
6. The staple food of Mexico was, and still is tortilla (made with corn seed).
7. The Spanish came to the New World for two reasons (the two main reasons), wealth (such as gold and silver) and to conquer territories (for the expansion of the Spanish Crown and consecrated to the catholic faith).
8. The most characteristic Mexican colonial social institution, the bulwark of the entire social framework and the principle molder of social attitudes as well as the land tenure system for the Europeans was the hacienda. The ejido was the Indian village with communal lands.
9. During the Colonial period the Crown established several institutions which demanded either labor or tribute from the Indians. The feudal type tenure system granted to the Conquistadores by the Crown was the encomienda which demanded tribute from the head of each Indian family and gave land to the soldier. The repartimiento system provided labor for use for the public weal but involved no land.
10. Although the Spanish dominated the power structure from conquest on, they were divided into two antagonistic groups, the criollos and the peninsulares.
11. In Mexico the Yucatan Peninsula was the heart of the mayan (Indian group) civilization.
12. The only port the Spanish allowed in Mexico was Veracruz. This was a result of the Spanish Monopoly System, which allowed trade only with Spain.
13. For 70+ years the “ruling” political party in Mexico has been the PRI (use initials).
14. The Papacy conferred on the Spanish Crown a participation in Church affairs denied to other lay Princes in Europe. This was a reward for Spain’s successful eviction of the jews and moors from Spain.
References:
Cardona K. J, “De la Colonia a la Actualidad: Papel de la Iglesia en la Explotación Minera y Tenencia de la Tierra en América”, 7 April 2010. Available on http://www.panamaprofundo.org/boletin/mineria/de-la-colonia-a-la-actualidad.htm
Diaz de Leon , “Marco histórico del desarrollo latinoamericano”, 7 April 2010, Available on http://www.gestiopolis.com/recursos/documentos/fulldocs/eco/mhdeco.htm
Senado de la Republica, “LA TENENCIA DE LA TIERRA EN MÉXICO”, 7 April
010, Available on
http://www.senado.gob.mx/content/sp/memoria/content/estatico/content/boletines/boletin_24.pdf
Yepes, E., “La época colonial
en América Latina”, 7 April 2010, Available on http://www.bowdoin.edu/~eyepes/latam/colonia.htm