Coursework On Hyponatremia – Coursework Example

Causes of Hyponatremia al affiliation Hyponatremia Common Causes of Hyponatremia The concentration of Serum sodium lower than 135 meq/L is medically called hyponatremia. Over consumption of water can dilute the sodium content of the blood. Patients lose a lot of sodium through sweat. Consumption of much water during endurance activities such as triathlons and marathons reduces the amount of sugar content. Drinking too much water, therefore, causes a proportional reduction in the serum osmolality (Hickey, 2009).
Secondly, Injection or consumption of certain medication can alter the normal level of sodium in the body. Medications such as antidepressants, diuretics (water pills), and pain medications multiply the process of urination or perspiration. Urinations and perspiration in absence of constant intake of fluid cause dehydration. The body ultimately loses electrolytes and fluids (Hale & Hovey, 2013).
Pathophysiologic changes
When a person with preserved renal function takes excess water above requirement, the fluid is usually excreted in diluted urine (Hale & Hovey, 2013). In this case, hyponatremia may not exist. In psychogenic polydipsia, intake of large volumes of water, relatively 15 to 20 liters a day result in hyponatremia. The clinical disorder leads to reduction in effective arterial blood volume, yielding to persistent ADH activity. In most cases, such hyponatremia is caused by acute or chronic renal failure (Hickey, 2009). Renal failure causes a reduction of the functions of nephron mass, reduced glomerular filtration rate and therefore reduces water excretion.
The mechanism of diuretic-induced reduction of serum osmolality is intricate and includes prying with urinary dilution. It is also associated with thick ascending loop of Henle, volume contraction and the distal convoluted tubule that induce increase in ADH secretion (Hale & Hovey, 2013). Some diuretic such as thiazide diuretics causes hyponatremia because of preservation in urine concentrating ability and medullary osmolality (Hickey, 2009). Other drugs can be associated with hyponatremia through the act of intensification of ADH secretion and action.
References
Hale, A., & Hovey, M. J. (2013). Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances: Content Review Plus Practice Questions. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.
Hickey, J. V. (2009). The clinical practice of neurological and neurosurgical nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.