Social Exchange Theory And Social Identity Theory – Coursework Example

Motivational Strategies Using Social Exchange Theory The social exchange theory is an important sociological theory that brings social action’s resource basis and a clear material conception to sociology (Cook, 2000, p. 688). Social rule systems govern these relations (e.g. Burns, 1990), particularly, the generalized reciprocity norm, thus giving out exchange transactions’ diffuse spectrum (Zafirovsky, 2005, p. 23).
In an organizational context, managers can adopt a motivational strategy based on social exchange theory in which employees are guaranteed promotion if they achieve the assigned goals in time and without cost overruns or compromise on quality. Managers should discuss the benefits of promotion with the employees at the outset so that they feel motivated to gain them. The manager-employee relationship’s worth can be estimated by subtracting costs from rewards (Monge and Contractor, 2003). This establishes a mutually beneficial relationship of exchange between the managers and the employees wherein both put in effort and/or resources to deliver something of interest to the other party.
Another motivational strategy managers can use is showing the employees motivational documentaries during breaks at office. These are opportunities for observation, reflection, and mutual discussion and promotion of understanding between managers and the employees. Intrinsic motivations or relations between actors in social exchange are central rather than extrinsic motives or economic advantages (Zafirovsky, 2005). Noticing how actors in the selected documentaries achieve their objectives and goals related to self-esteem, security, and self-actualization by putting the required effort and resources to achieve work-related goals inculcates motivation in the employees to do the same.
References:
Burns, T. (1990). Models Of Social And Market Exchange: Toward A Sociological Theory Of
Games And Social Behavior. In C. Calhoun, M. Meyer & R. Scott (eds). Structures of power and constraint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cook, K. (2000). Charting Futures for Sociology: Structure and Action. Contemporary Sociology
29, 685-692.
Monge, P. R., and Contractor, N. (2003). Theories of communication networks. Oxford
University Press.
Zafirovsky, M. (2005). Social Exchange Theory under Scrutiny: A Positive Critique of its
Economic-Behaviorist Formulations. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Retrieved from http://www.sociology.org/content/2005/tier2/SETheory.pdf.