What Are The Main Aspects Of The Sufi Movement Why Was Al-Hallaj Executed What Was The – Essay Example
What are the main aspects of the Sufi movement? Why was al-Hallaj executed? What was the contribution of al-Ghazali?" What are the main aspects of the Sufi movement?
Sufism, the spiritual dimension of the Islamic philosophy, originated as a direct protest against degradation of Islamic leaders and rulers. The Sufi movement possesses a number of unique aspects related to faith, spirituality and philosophy. Generally saying, Sufism is termed under Islamic spirituality. Carl W. Ernst makes clear that the real delight or happiness of Sufism can be described by a person who experienced the same (Ernst 25). Apart from Islamic belief, Sufism considers that one can join the God or feel his presence in this world. Sufism cannot be limited to the sphere of Islam because it shows acceptance to other religious philosophies which believes in universal presence of god. Besides, Sufism cannot be learned with the help of holy books but can be learned from Sufi teachers or saints. Sufism proclaims the possibility of direct contact with the God, without the influence or help of external factors. So, one can see that Sufism is beyond the influence of Islam and its ideology.
Why was al-Hallaj executed?
Mansur al Hallaj (c. 858 – March 26, 922), the Persian mystic who proclaimed himself as the god was a chief exponent of Sufism. As he proclaimed divinity, he was executed by Caliph Al-Muqtadir. His belief in Mysticism was so hard because once he asked his followers to kill him so that he can testify his relationship with God. This crude form of worship and influence of mysticism in the society was not acceptable for Caliph Al-Muqtadir. So, Mansur al Hallaj was executed.
What was the contribution of al-Ghazali?
Al-Ghazali (1058 - 1128 C.E.), the Sufi saint is renowned for his contributions to the spheres like philosophy, religious belief and Sufi movement. Al-Ghazali neglected the influence of Neo-platonic philosophy and unwanted prayers and customs in Islam. He tried to correct these faults by connecting philosophy and Sufism within spirituality. For instance, in the sphere of pure philosophy, he supported arithmetic and different branches of science. On the other side, his religious belief was based on Sufism and orthodox Islam, and ignored unwanted prayers and customs. At the same time, he did not neglect Sufi spirituality based on genuine love towards god, which is the best possible way to attain the ultimate reality.
Ernst, Carl W. Words of ecstasy in Sufism.USA: SUNY Press, 1985.