Bacteria Profile – Lab Report Example

ification Bacteria Profile Subkingdom: Eubacteria Genus: Species: Francisella tularensis Cell Structure and Morphology: Tiny, pleomorphic, poorly staining gram-ve coccobacillus of 0.2 - 0.5 by 0.7 - 1.0 micron in size. Intracellular in clinical specimen
Shape: Coccobacillus
Arrangement: solitary (singles)
Glycocalyx: capsule & biofilm
Cell Wall: Gram negative
Chemical composition: lipopolysaccharide
Outer membrane, if present
Periplasmic space present
Appendages
Flagella: amphitrichous
Pili: present
Fimbriae: None
Other Structures: plasmids, granules
Reproduction: Binary fission
Metabolism
Carbon source: carbon dioxide, organic compounds (Hexoses e.g. glucose, fructose 3-phosphoglycerate acetyl-CoA)
Energy source: organic compounds
Nutritional Type: chemoheterotroph
Physical Requirements
Temperature: mesophile
Oxygen: facultative anaerobe
Osmotic Pressure: halophile
Habitat/Niche
Aquatic, soil, animal, sewage/waste
Ecosystem Role: consumer
Interactions w/ other species: parasitism
Disease Dynamics
Source: exogenous
Virulence Factors: capsule, biofilm, pili, enzymes (keratinase, hyaluronidase,
collagenase, streptokinase, coagulase), toxins (leukocidin, hemolysin, endotoxin,
exotoxin)
Target Tissue: Epithelial
Type of Infection: acute, latent, local, focal, systemic, bacteremia, toxemia
Symptoms or signs: Depending on site of infection, tularemia has the following characteristic clinical signs and symptoms: Ulceroglandular (75% of all forms), Oropharyngeal, Glandular, Pneumonic, Typhoidal, Oculoglandular, Chills, Muscle pains, Conjunctivitis, Fever, Sweating, Weight loss, Headache, Joint stiffness, Red spot on the skin and Shortness of breath.
Prevention: Avoid handling dead or sick animal bodies or use gloves plus eye and face protection if you have to. Ensure all wild meat is cooked thoroughly, Use insect repellant with DEET to avoid insect bites that transmit the bacteria, Drink water from only safe and secure sources. Wear a facemask when cutting brush or moving the lawn, particularly in an area where tularemia is common. 0.1 ml Live attenuated vaccine dose via scarification
Treatment: Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol (as last resort)
Epidemiology: Peak onset is summer and fall, Endemic areas in United States (>50% of cases) Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma
Status: Endemic across northern hemisphere.
Type of Infectious Disease: contagious
Incidence: USA
1990--2000, total of 1,368 tularemia cases reported to CDC from 44 states, average 124 cases (range: 86--193) per year; 807 cases (59%) reported as confirmed, 85 cases (6%) were reported as probable.
Prevalence: USA
Mortality: significant if untreated
Reservoir: vector (carrier or zoonoses), soil
Incubation period: 3 to 5 days after exposure, but can range from 1 to 14 days.
Period of Illness (prodromal thru decline): 18- 28 days
Convalescence: At two weeks, Tularemia Serology Confirms diagnosis
Transmission: inoculation, food, water, airborne, fomite
Disease cycle of Tularemia


Work cited
Clemens, D., Lee, Y., & Horwitz, A.. Virulent and avirulent strains of Francisella tularensis prevent maturation and acidification of the phagosome and escapes into the cytoplasms in human macrophage. Infections and Immunity. 2004, 72(6): 3204-3217.
Gil, H. & Thanassi, G.. Presence of pili on the surface of Francisella tularensis. Infect.Immun.2004, 72:30423047.
Feldman, A, Lathrop, S. et al. Outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia on Marthas Vineyard. N Engl J Med. 2001, 345:1601--6.
Kugeler, K., Mead, P, Janusz, M, Staples, E, Kubota, K, Chalcraft, G, & Petersen
J.M.. Molecular Epidemiology of Francisella tularensis in the United States. Clin
Infect Dis. 2009, 48(7):863-70. PubMed PMID: 19245342.
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